One of the main research issues among other for Industry 4.0, identified by The German working committee, is the horizontal integration through value networks and the vertical integration of network manufacturing systems. In order to align and integrate related standard, model transformations can be used in order to adjust overlapping information from these standards. The use of model-based approaches is a crucial and competitive factor for successful engineering processes in the automated production systems domain, and hence an emerging practice in industry. It offers the following possibility: Before the transformation can be executed, metamodels of the standards have to be available or developed. In the next step the semantic mapping of the metamodels can be achieved.
The diagrams shows the interconnected standards of ISA-95. The x-axis functions as orientation and show the hierarchy levels of ISA-95. ISA-95 can be used to connect the lower levels of the automation pyramide with the business models. The REA is a popular model for accounting information systems. More about the alignment of ISA-95 to REA.
The second transformation, we will present is the mapping from the model to the serialization. This is important to understand one of the core ideas of the model-based approach in general. More about B2MML and ISA-95.
The transformation of AutomationML to elements of IEC 62264 further fosters the integration of manufacturing layers.
OPC UA is seen as the future of communication standards in context of smart manufacturing. The transformation of ISA-95 to OPC UA.
The connection of these standards is therefore an important step towards:
End User Development Tool
The purpose of this initiative is Empowering End Users To Develop Automated Production Systems. The Diagram shows in the turquoise fields the tool support of the interconnected standards.
The different tools can be viewed as different viewpoints of the same CPPS in an analogous manner to which the various diagrams are different viewpoints of ISA-95. One of the main challenges in the process of the requirements engineering to develop an automated production system is the communication problem, which results from the different background of stakeholders, as well as their individual and their different personality trait, roles and objective targets.
The following exemplaric scenario arises: Production Managers can start to model with the help of the ISA-95 Designer. This model can be transformed to REA, which can be extended and refined with the REA-DSL by accounting managers. The new insights may have impact on the ISA-95 Model as well, which can be again processed by the Production Manager.
These models can be transformed to domain agnostic e.g. OPC UA models, which can extended by engineers responsible for the communication and security of the APS. In a more generic way, the models from one standard can used as skeleton of the definition of the next standard.
The tools as a whole can be viewed as a toolset, which enables to develop a whole APS with all its characteristics and facets with domain-specific respectively domain-agnostic, but tier-specific languages, the appropriate experts understand.
The granularity of concepts can give informations about, which tool can be useful to start.
Since some concepts of ISA-95 are higher granular than (31 are mapped on 23 REA entities), it makes sense to start with the ISA-95 modeling. Only after modeling of REA, it makes sense to model domain-agnostic diagrams. Therefore the development process of figure is recommended.